In [1]:
%pylab nbagg
from tvb.simulator.lab import *
Populating the interactive namespace from numpy and matplotlib
   INFO  NumExpr defaulting to 4 threads.
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.epileptor.Epileptor.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'x1': array([-2.,  1.]), 'y1': array([-20.,   2.]), 'z': array([2., 5.]), 'x2': array([-2.,  0.]), 'y2': array([0., 2.]), 'g': array([-1.,  1.])}, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 1.0 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.epileptor.Epileptor2D.tt = NArray(label='tt', dtype=float64, default=array([1.]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.epileptor.Epileptor2D.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'x1': array([-2.,  1.]), 'z': array([2., 5.])}, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 1.0 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.epileptor_rs.EpileptorRestingState.gamma_rs = NArray(label=":math:'\\gamma_rs'", dtype=float64, default=array([1.]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.epileptor_rs.EpileptorRestingState.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'x1': array([-1.8, -1.4]), 'y1': array([-15, -10]), 'z': array([3.6, 4. ]), 'x2': array([-1.1, -0.9]), 'y2': array([0.001, 0.01 ]), 'g': array([-1.,  1.]), 'x_rs': array([-2.,  4.]), 'y_rs': array([-6.,  6.])}, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.epileptorcodim3.EpileptorCodim3.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'x': array([0.4, 0.6]), 'y': array([-0.1,  0.1]), 'z': array([0.  , 0.15])}, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.epileptorcodim3.EpileptorCodim3SlowMod.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'x': array([0.4, 0.6]), 'y': array([-0.1,  0.1]), 'z': array([0. , 0.1]), 'uA': array([0., 0.]), 'uB': array([0., 0.])}, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.hopfield.Hopfield.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'x': array([-1.,  2.]), 'theta': array([0., 1.])}, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 0.12 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.jansen_rit.JansenRit.p_min = NArray(label=':math:`p_{min}`', dtype=float64, default=array([0.12]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 0.32 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.jansen_rit.JansenRit.p_max = NArray(label=':math:`p_{max}`', dtype=float64, default=array([0.32]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 0.22 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.jansen_rit.JansenRit.mu = NArray(label=':math:`\\mu_{max}`', dtype=float64, default=array([0.22]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.jansen_rit.JansenRit.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'y0': array([-1.,  1.]), 'y1': array([-500.,  500.]), 'y2': array([-50.,  50.]), 'y3': array([-6.,  6.]), 'y4': array([-20.,  20.]), 'y5': array([-500.,  500.])}, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.jansen_rit.ZetterbergJansen.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'v1': array([-100.,  100.]), 'y1': array([-500.,  500.]), 'v2': array([-100.,   50.]), 'y2': array([-100.,    6.]), 'v3': array([-100.,    6.]), 'y3': array([-100.,    6.]), 'v4': array([-100.,   20.]), 'y4': array([-100.,   20.]), 'v5': array([-100.,   20.]), 'y5': array([-500.,  500.]), 'v6': array([-100.,   20.]), 'v7': array([-100.,   20.])}, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex -0.01 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.larter_breakspear.LarterBreakspear.TCa = NArray(label=':math:`T_{Ca}`', dtype=float64, default=array([-0.01]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 0.3 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.larter_breakspear.LarterBreakspear.TNa = NArray(label=':math:`T_{Na}`', dtype=float64, default=array([0.3]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 2.0 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.larter_breakspear.LarterBreakspear.aei = NArray(label=':math:`a_{ei}`', dtype=float64, default=array([2.]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 2.0 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.larter_breakspear.LarterBreakspear.aie = NArray(label=':math:`a_{ie}`', dtype=float64, default=array([2.]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 1.0 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.larter_breakspear.LarterBreakspear.ane = NArray(label=':math:`a_{ne}`', dtype=float64, default=array([1.]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 0.3 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.larter_breakspear.LarterBreakspear.Iext = NArray(label=':math:`I_{ext}`', dtype=float64, default=array([0.3]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 1.0 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.larter_breakspear.LarterBreakspear.QV_max = NArray(label=':math:`Q_{max}`', dtype=float64, default=array([1.]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 1.0 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.larter_breakspear.LarterBreakspear.QZ_max = NArray(label=':math:`Q_{max}`', dtype=float64, default=array([1.]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 1.0 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.larter_breakspear.LarterBreakspear.t_scale = NArray(label=':math:`t_{scale}`', dtype=float64, default=array([1.]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.larter_breakspear.LarterBreakspear.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'V': array([-1.5,  1.5]), 'W': array([-1.5,  1.5]), 'Z': array([-1.5,  1.5])}, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.linear.Linear.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'x': array([-1,  1])}, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 1.0 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.oscillator.Generic2dOscillator.gamma = NArray(label=':math:`\\gamma`', dtype=float64, default=array([1.]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.oscillator.Generic2dOscillator.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'V': array([-2.,  4.]), 'W': array([-6.,  6.])}, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.oscillator.Kuramoto.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'theta': array([0.        , 6.28318531])}, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.oscillator.SupHopf.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'x': array([-5.,  5.]), 'y': array([-5.,  5.])}, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.stefanescu_jirsa.ReducedSetFitzHughNagumo.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'xi': array([-4.,  4.]), 'eta': array([-3.,  3.]), 'alpha': array([-4.,  4.]), 'beta': array([-3.,  3.])}, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 1.0 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.stefanescu_jirsa.ReducedSetHindmarshRose.a = NArray(label=':math:`a`', dtype=float64, default=array([1.]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 3.0 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.stefanescu_jirsa.ReducedSetHindmarshRose.b = NArray(label=':math:`b`', dtype=float64, default=array([3.]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 1.0 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.stefanescu_jirsa.ReducedSetHindmarshRose.c = NArray(label=':math:`c`', dtype=float64, default=array([1.]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 3.3 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.stefanescu_jirsa.ReducedSetHindmarshRose.mu = NArray(label=':math:`\\mu`', dtype=float64, default=array([3.3]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.stefanescu_jirsa.ReducedSetHindmarshRose.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'xi': array([-4.,  4.]), 'eta': array([-25.,  20.]), 'tau': array([ 2., 10.]), 'alpha': array([-4.,  4.]), 'beta': array([-20.,  20.]), 'gamma': array([ 2., 10.])}, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.wilson_cowan.WilsonCowan.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'E': array([0., 1.]), 'I': array([0., 1.])}, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 0.27 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.wong_wang.ReducedWongWang.a = NArray(label=':math:`a`', dtype=float64, default=array([0.27]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.wong_wang.ReducedWongWang.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'S': array([0., 1.])}, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.wong_wang.ReducedWongWang.state_variable_boundaries = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'S': array([0., 1.])}, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 10.0 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.models.wong_wang_exc_inh.ReducedWongWangExcInh.tau_i = NArray(label=':math:`\\tau_i`', dtype=float64, default=array([10.]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.wong_wang_exc_inh.ReducedWongWangExcInh.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'S_e': array([0., 1.]), 'S_i': array([0., 1.])}, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.wong_wang_exc_inh.ReducedWongWangExcInh.state_variable_boundaries = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'S_e': array([0., 1.]), 'S_i': array([0., 1.])}, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.zerlaut.ZerlautFirstOrder.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'E': array([0. , 0.1]), 'I': array([0. , 0.1]), 'W': array([  0., 100.])}, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.simulator.models.zerlaut.ZerlautSecondOrder.state_variable_range = Final(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'E': array([0. , 0.1]), 'I': array([0. , 0.1]), 'C_ee': array([0., 0.]), 'C_ei': array([0., 0.]), 'C_ii': array([0., 0.]), 'W': array([  0., 100.])}, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.datatypes.time_series.TimeSeries.labels_dimensions = Attr(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={}, required=True)
WARNING  Field seems mutable and has a default value. Consider using a lambda as a value factory 
   attribute tvb.datatypes.projections.ProjectionMatrix.conductances = Attr(field_type=<class 'dict'>, default={'air': 0.0, 'skin': 1.0, 'skull': 0.01, 'brain': 1.0}, required=False)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 1.0 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.coupling.HyperbolicTangent.b = NArray(label=':math:`b`', dtype=float64, default=array([1.]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)
WARNING  default contains values out of the declared domain. Ex 1.0 
   attribute  tvb.simulator.coupling.Kuramoto.a = NArray(label=':math:`a`', dtype=float64, default=array([1.]), dim_names=(), ndim=None, required=True)

Exploring The Bold Monitor

This tutorial explores the different functions used to model the haemodynamic response function (HRF) to compute the BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) signal.

In the current implementation (1.1.3) TVB has HRF kernels:

  1. a Gamma function,
  2. a difference of two damped oscillators,
  3. a first order Volterra kernel, and
  4. a mixture of gamma functions.

Bold Monitor

Let's start by creating an instance of the Bold monitor with its default parameters:

In [2]:
bold = monitors.Bold()
bold.configure()
bold
Out[2]:

Bold

value
Type
Bold
gid
UUID('fd47d4d0-fac1-40cb-b0dd-c58510d34e65')
hrf_kernel
FirstOrderVolterra gid: ca48557b-e8cd-438b-91e9-c7ab720d0b11
hrf_length
20000.0
period
2000.0
title
Bold gid: fd47d4d0-fac1-40cb-b0dd-c58510d34e65
variables_of_interest
None

In general, the sampling period of a monitor is in milliseconds and must be an integral multiple of the integration-step size used in a simulation.

Therefore, monitors need to know the integration time step (dt) because some data reduction mechanims (eg, downsampling to the monitor's sampling period) depend on it. An easy way to achieve this is:

In [3]:
bold.dt = 2**-4 # Default value used in the scripts found at tvb/simulator/demos

HRFs are TVB Equation datatypes, and you can explore their attributes,

In [4]:
bold.hrf_kernel
Out[4]:

FirstOrderVolterra

value
Equation type
FirstOrderVolterra
equation
1/3. * exp(-0.5*(var / tau_s)) * (sin(sqrt(1./tau_f - 1./(4.*tau_s**2)) * var)) / (sqrt(1./tau_f - 1./(4.*tau_s**2)))
parameters
{'tau_s': 0.8, 'tau_f': 0.4, 'k_1': 5.6, 'V_0': 0.02}

The default kernel is the Volterra kernel. The shape of this function depends on the following parameters:

  1. $\tau_s$, rate constant of signal decay;
  2. $\tau_f$, rate constant of feedback regulation;
  • $V_0$ and $k_1$ are parameters used in the monitor to scale the amplitude of the response. See [1].

Let's have a look at the function:

In [5]:
bold.compute_hrf()

By default, the method compute_hrf gives the reflected version of the HRF. The product between this reflected HRF and the monitor's neural activity history (convolution) yields the BOLD signal. In python the indexing [::-1] will give the HRF kernel as often seen in scientific publications.

In [6]:
# plot the kernel
plt.plot(bold._stock_time, bold.hemodynamic_response_function.T[::-1]); 
plt.ylabel('hrf');
plt.xlabel('time [sec]')

# plot the maximum
plt.plot(bold._stock_time[bold.hemodynamic_response_function.T[::-1].argmax()], bold.hemodynamic_response_function.T[::-1].max(), 'ko')
Out[6]:
[<matplotlib.lines.Line2D at 0x7f00ac9b2d90>]
In [7]:
print ('Rising peak is around %1.2f seconds' % bold._stock_time[bold.hemodynamic_response_function.T[::-1].argmax()])
Rising peak is around 0.80 seconds

Exploring other HRF kernels

First, we will create new instances of the Bold monitor.

Second, the equation defining the hrf kernel has to be changed. To achieve this we will make use of the predefined functions as Equations datatypes

  • In [2] they used a simple gamma function; in [3] a difference of damped oscillators was fitted to functional data from the visual cortex; the mixture of gammas is the function used in softwares like SPM.
In [8]:
hrf_kernels = [equations.FirstOrderVolterra(),
               equations.DoubleExponential(),
               equations.MixtureOfGammas(),
               equations.Gamma()]

figure()
for hrf in hrf_kernels: 
    bold_monitor = monitors.Bold(hrf_kernel=hrf)
    bold_monitor.dt = 2**-4
    bold_monitor.compute_hrf()
    plot(bold_monitor._stock_time,
         bold_monitor.hemodynamic_response_function.T[::-1], 
         label=hrf.__class__.__name__);

ylabel('hrf');
xlabel('time [sec]')    
legend()
Out[8]:
<matplotlib.legend.Legend at 0x7f00ace1c410>
  • [1] Friston, K., Mechelli, A., Turner, R., and Price, C., Nonlinear Responses in fMRI: The Balloon Model, Volterra Kernels, and Other Hemodynamics, NeuroImage, 12, 466 - 477, 2000.

  • [2] Geoffrey M. Boynton, Stephen A. Engel, Gary H. Glover and David J. Heeger (1996). Linear Systems Analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Human V1. J Neurosci 16: 4207-4221

  • [3] Alex Polonsky, Randolph Blake, Jochen Braun and David J. Heeger (2000). Neuronal activity in human primary visual cortex correlates with perception during binocular rivalry. Nature Neuroscience 3: 1153-1159

  • [4] Glover, G. Deconvolution of Impulse Response in Event-Related BOLD fMRI. NeuroImage 9, 416-429, 1999.

  • [5] Have a look at this tutorial: https://nbviewer.thevirtualbrain.org/github/practical-neuroimaging/pna-notebooks/blob/master/convolution.ipynb

  • [6] Drysdale, P. M.; Huber, J. P.; Robinson, P. A. & Aquino, K. M. Spatiotemporal BOLD dynamics from a poroelastic hemodynamic model. J Theor Biol, 2010, 265, 524–534

  • [7] http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/SPM/Haemodynamic_Response_Function

In [ ]: